コロナウイルス関連英和用語集 (翻訳会社ジェイビット用語編集委員会)




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A↑ インデックスへ
ACE2 (Angiotensin-converting enzyme II)アンギオテンシン変換酵素II:
* ACE-2 is an entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19).
acquired (adaptive) immunity獲得免疫:
■ 生後外来の抗原からの刺激の結果、免疫系が後天的に獲得する当該抗原に対する特異的免疫.
Act on Special Measures for Pandemic Influenza and New Infectious Diseases Preparedness and Response新型インフルエンザ等対策特別措置法 (新型インフル特措法)
Act on the Prevention of Infectious Diseases and Medical Care for Patients with Infectious Diseases (the Infectious Diseases Control Law)感染症の予防及び感染症の患者に対する医療に関する法律
アクテムラ (商品名):
■ インターロイキン6(IL-6)というサイトカインの働きを抑える「抗ヒトインターロイキン6モノクローナル抗体製剤」; 抗IL-6受容体抗体トシリズマブ(一般名)
active epidemiological investigation積極的疫学調査
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)急性呼吸窮迫症候群(ARDS):
■ 肺への体液貯留により酸素が正常に取り込めなくなる呼吸不全。治療法は酸素吸入や人工呼吸器による呼吸補助。新型コロナウイルス感染症(COVID-19)によるARDSでは、体外式膜型人工肺(ECMO)が有効とされる.
adenovirus アデノウイルス:
■ 多数の血清型があり、急性呼吸器疾患、胃腸炎、結膜炎、膀胱炎などを起こす.
* Consider 5 key points when preparing to administer Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine.
* The Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine is administered intramuscularly as a series of two doses (0.5 mL each) 1 month apart.
モデルナ社COVID-19ワクチンは、1か月の間を開けて2回(1回あたり0.5 mL)筋注する
administration 投与;投薬、(ワクチン)接種:
* In preparation for administration, remove the required number of vials from frozen storage and thaw each vial before use.
adverse event 有害事象:
* An adverse event can be a true adverse reaction, also known as a side effect, that is related to the vaccine, or a coincidental event that happened following vaccination.
adverse reaction (ワクチンの)副反応 (side effectに同じ):
* Adverse reactions, also known as side effects, are considered to be caused by a vaccine
* A tiny particle or droplet that’s suspended in the air. 
aerosol transmission 飛沫感染
* Risk for severe illness with COVID-19 increases with age, with older adults at highest risk.
* Risk increases with age
* people aged 65 or older 65歳以上の人
air changes per hour(ACH)換気回数(時間当たりの)
airborne droplet nuclei 飛沫核:
* Airborne droplet nuclei develop when the fluid of pathogenic droplets (1-5 µm in size) evaporates 
直径1μm- 5μmの病原性飛沫から水分が蒸発したもの.
airborne infection/ airborne transmission 空気感染:
* The spread of an infectious agent caused by the dissemination of droplet nuclei that remain infectious when suspended in air over long distances and time"" 「WHO」
airborne particle空中塵埃、浮遊粒子
* This high severity is dependent on a cytokine storm, most likely induced by the interleukin-6 (IL-6) amplifier
■ 原因物質(抗原)により感作される準備期間後、その原因物質が再び生体に接触することで引き起こされる免疫学的機序による全身的アレルギー反応[WIKIPEDIA]
* There have been reports of severe allergic reactions to the mRNA vaccines. Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines appear, on rare occasions, to trigger anaphylaxis, a severe and potentially life-threatening reaction.
■ 血液中につくられる血圧上昇物質;I, II, IIIの3つがあり、IIが主要な活性ペプチド
Ang II: Angiotensin IIアンギオテンシン II:
■ 8個のアミノ酸残基の鎖からなるペプチドで、アンギオテンシンの生理的活性型.
* A glycoprotein molecule produced in the body in direct response to the introduction of an antigen.
antibody test抗体検査:
* This test checks to see if you have antibodies in your blood that show that you were previously infected with the virus
antibody virus test 抗体ウイルス検査
■  生体を刺激して抗体産生や細胞性免疫などの免疫応答を引き起こす物体の総称.
* The Japanese government approved on Wednesday test kits that can detect novel coronavirus antigens in 15 to 30 minutes
antigen test抗原検査:
anti-malarial drug抗マラリア薬
* The Lancet medical journal found that there were no benefits to taking these two anti-malarial drugs - and they could even increase the risk of heart problems
antivirals (antiviral drugs)抗ウイルス薬
* AstraZeneca’s vaccine has already been authorized in Britain and other countries.
* An infected person who never shows signs or symptoms of infection 
* It is possible to contract the coronavirus and make antibodies to it even if you stay asymptomatic.
* asymptomatic infected individual
* Transmission from asymptomatic infected individuals has been documented for COVID-19, and viral load is particularly high at early disease stage
■ 富士フイルムホールディングスの抗インフルエンザ薬。
* Avigan is effective in curbing the growth of the virus.
B↑ インデックスへ
basal medium基本培地
"basic reproduction number (BRN), R0",",基本再生産数:
■ 疫学において、感染症に感染した1人の感染者が、誰も免疫を持たない集団に加わったとき、平均して何人に直接感染させるかという人数.
BCG (Bacillus Calmette–Guérin)BCG:
* The BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) vaccine is primarily used to prevent tuberculosis.
bed occupancy rate/ hospital bed occupancy rate病床利用率:
* A patient suspected of infection had to share a room with others before confirmation due to a high level of bed occupancy.
bioburden バイオバーデン:
■ 試料に混入している微生物の数. 試料に混入している微生物の数[Wikipedia]
bloodborne infection血液媒介感染
body fluids 体液 (唾液・汗・精液・尿など):
* Public areas where a symptomatic individual has passed through and spent minimal time in (such as corridors) but which are not visibly contaminated with body fluids do not need to be specially cleaned and disinfected.
booster shot追加接種
border control 出入国管理、国境管理:
* Japan tightens its border control measures with stricter entry requirements for Japanese returnees and a fresh batch of entry procedures for business travelers from eligible countries.
C↑ インデックスへ
camostat mesilate カモスタット:
■ セリンプロテアーゼ阻害剤。 セリンプロテアーゼは体内でさまざまな機能を持つ。がん治療に使用され、一部のウイルス感染に対しても効果的であり、肝臓や腎臓の病気や膵炎の 線維化を抑制する [WIKIPEDIA]
capillary electrophoresisキャピラリ-電気泳動
capillary tube毛細管
CAR(chimeric antigen receptor)キメラ抗原レセプタ:
■ 人工的に作られた、T細胞を活性化させる受容体.
* A person that harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and serves as a potential source of infection.
無症候性の感染状態にあり,潜在的な感染源となりうる人 [ステッドマン医学大辞典]
* confirmed cases (感染者数)
* cumulative cases (累計感染者数)
* new daily cases (新規感染者数)
* positive cases (陽性者数)
Case fatality rate (CFR)致死率(致命率):
■ 致死率(%)=疾病発生または診断後ある期間内に死亡した人数/ある疾患を有する人数 (×100)
* The CFR is calculated by dividing the number of deaths caused by a disease by the number of cases of that disease in a given time period.
* An estimate of the risk of mortality from a contagious disease.
case investigation事例調査
case isolation患者の隔離
contact tracing接触者追跡:
* Contact tracing is used by health departments to prevent the spread of infectious diseased [CDC].
Category I Infectious Diseases一類感染症
Category II Infectious Diseases二類感染症
Category III Infectious Diseases三類感染症
Category IV Infectious Diseases四類感染症
Category V Infectious Diseases五類感染症
cell membrane細胞膜
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:CDC米国疾病予防管理センター
Central infectious disease surveillance center中央感染症情報センター
ChAdOx1 nCov-19オックスフォード大学とアストラゼネカ社が共同開発した新型コロナウイルスワクチン開発コード:
* The University of Oxford partnered with the British-Swedish company AstraZeneca to develop and test a coronavirus vaccine known as ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or AZD1222.
オックスフォード大学は英国の製薬会社アストラゼネカ社と共同でコロナウイルスワクチン(開発番号ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 または AZD1222)を開発・試験した
Class I pathogens一種病原体
Class II pathogens二種病原体
* Clean hands frequently, using soap and water for at least 20 seconds or with an alcohol-based hand sanitiser that contains at least 60-95% alcohol.
cleaning 清浄;洗浄; きれいにする:
* regular hand hygiene and cleaning of frequently touched surfaces will help to reduce the risk of infection.
clinical trial治験:
* Clinical trials are a type of research that studies new tests and treatments and evaluates their effects on human health outcomes. [WHO]
* Clinical trials found that the vaccine had an efficacy of 82.4 percent when two doses were given 2 weeks apart.
close contact:濃厚接触(者):
* COVID-19 is most likely transmitted when there is close contact (2 metres or less) with an infected person. It is likely that the risk increases the longer someone has close contact with an infected person.
新型コロナウイルスは、感染者と濃厚接触(2メートル以下)があった場合には感染する可能性が高い. 感染者との濃厚接触が長くなるほど感染のリスクが高まると思われる
*  avoid close contact with any potentially infected person
* The best way to reduce any risk of infection is good hygiene and avoiding direct or close contact (closer than 2 metres) with any potentially infected person.
cohort isolation集団隔離
colony forming units(CFU)コロニー形成単位
collapse of a health care system 医療崩壊:
* The government was adamant that targeted testing would prevent hospitals from being overburdened and stop the collapse of the country’s health care system.
communal areas共用区域(事務所やトイレなど多くの人が共用する場所)
Community transmission/spread市中感染:
* Community transmission and community spread are terms used interchangeably to describe what happens when there is significant disease spread in a certain population with no clear source.
commuting hours 通勤時間:
* Stagger commuting hours so as to ease congestion during the morning and evening rush hours.
compulsory義務の; 強制的な; 義務化 :
* Some virologists warn a new compulsory mask rule could end up being counterproductive.
* Wearing a face mask became compulsory on Wednesday in all public places in Brussels as the number of COVID-19 infections rose to a government alert level.
confidentiality秘密; 機密; 守秘義務:
* If a worker is confirmed to have COVID-19, employers should inform fellow workers of their possible exposure to COVID-19 in the workplace but maintain confidentiality.
confirm 確定、確認:
* Across Japan on Friday, a total of 3,538 cases were confirmed, with the number of severely ill patients down 18 at 1,014.
* Tokyo confirmed 868 new coronavirus cases Friday, with the count showing a downward trend in recent days.
confirmed case確定感染者; 確定症例者数:
* a confirmed case of COVID-19 (COVID-19患者)
* Those contacts who test positive (symptomatic or asymptomatic) should be managed as a confirmed COVID-19 case.
contact infection/contact transmission 接触感染
contact inhibition接触抑制
contact quarantine接触検疫
contact tracing接触追跡:
* The process of identifying, assessing, and managing people who have been exposed to a contagious disease to prevent onward transmission.
contact transmision 接触感染:
* Contact transmission is infection spread through direct contact with an infectious person (e.g., touching during a handshake) or with an article or surface that has become contaminated.
contagion 伝染;接触伝染; 伝染病:
* Smallpox spreads by contagion (疱瘡は接触伝染で広がる)
* No effective vaccine strategy or approved medication for the treatment of this contagious disease has been established, although clinical trials are intensively being performed.
contagious disease 感染症
contaminated area汚染区域
contract 感染する:
* contract influenza from sb (人からインフルエンザにかかる)
* contract AIDS from a blood transfusion (輸血からエイズにかかる)
* contract cholera through drinking infected water (汚れた水を飲んでコレラにかかる)
* Going to the hospital for medical care and contracting a new disease there is ridiculous. But it seems to happen quite frequently.

新型コロナウイルスに感染する: その他の表現
* be infected with COVID-19
* become infected with COVID-19
* get infected with COVID-19 
* get COVID-19
Convalescent plasma (TAK-888)回復期患者血漿:
* Takeda is exploring whether blood plasma from recovered Covid-19 patients, which can contain infection-fighting antibodies, can be used against the illness.
Convalescent plasma therapy回復期患者血漿療法:
* A treatment that involves taking blood from someone who has antibodies to a disease, separating out the clear liquid part (plasma), and then giving it to someone who is sick with the same illness. This technique has been used to treat many different diseases but is still considered experimental for treating COVID-19.
Cordon sanitaire防疫線(疫病発生地域に対する公権力による流行防止措置)
* A measure preventing anyone from leaving a defined geographic area, such as a community, region, or country infected by a disease to stop the spread of the disease.
* A type of virus that looks like a corona (crown) when viewed under a microscope. There are many different coronaviruses. Most cause mild respiratory infections like the common cold, but others can cause serious illness. The strain of coronavirus that is causing the COVID-19 pandemic is called SARS-CoV-2.
coronavirus antibodiesコロナウイルス抗体
* The government will test around 10,000 people for coronavirus antibodies starting next month.
coronavirus crisisコロナウイルス禍:
* Over 100 universities in Japan were implementing or considering measures to financially help students amid the coronavirus crisis.
coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)#COVID-19# 新型コロナウイルス感染症(COVID-19)
* Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has globally spread to an ongoing pandemic since the first case of infection was reported in 2019.
新型コロナウイルス感染症(COVID-19)は、重症急性呼吸器症候群コロナウイルス2 (SARS-CoV-2)によって引き起こされ、現在地球規模で広がっている。最初の感染例は2019年に報告された.
coronavirus patientコロナウイルス患者
* The cough, however, may last for more than two weeks.
cough and sneeze etiquetteせき(くしゃみ)エチケット:
* The use of face masks should only be considered as a complementary measure and not a replacement for established preventive practices, such as physical distancing, cough and sneeze etiquette, hand hygiene and avoiding face touching.
* COVID-19: Stands for coronavirus disease-19. COVID-19 is the name of the infection caused by the novel (new) strain of highly contagious coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that was first identified in late 2019.
COVID-19 virus新型コロナウイルス:
* There is a risk that people attending your meeting or event might be unwittingly bringing the COVID-19 virus to the meeting.
criminal penalty刑事罰:
* The government is considering imposing criminal penalties on COVID-19 patients who refuse to be hospitalized and those who reject active epidemiological investigations.
critical infrastructure worker重要インフラ労働者
cross contamination交差汚染
CRS (Cytokine release syndrome)サイトカイン放出症候群:
■ 抗体医薬などの薬剤の静脈投与中またはその直後に,血中炎症性サイトカイン放出によりき起こされる症状.
CT scanCTスキャン
culture medium培地
cumulative effect蓄積効果
cumulative cases累積症例数
cumulative number 累計:
* The cumulative number of cases in the capital is now 99,208. Tokyo’s daily figure comes after 10,236 tests were conducted on Wednesday. It usually takes around three days for tests to produce results.
* リンパ球やその他の免疫担当細胞から分泌される活性液性因子
cytokine receptor サイトカインレセプター(受容器)
cytokine release syndrome (CRS)サイトカイン放出症候群(CRS):
■  抗体 医薬などの薬剤の静脈投与中またはその直後に,血中炎症性サイトカインの放出により引き起こされる症状. 悪寒,悪心,倦怠感,頭痛,発熱,頻脈,血圧上昇などの種々の症状を呈し,重篤な場合は,サイトカインストームに至る.(実験医学websiteより)
D↑ インデックスへ
daily infection rate日次(1日当たり)感染率:
* Following a second lockdown that ended in early December and allowed stores to open for Christmas shopping, daily infection rates quickly increased, leading the government to impose a third lockdown just a few weeks later.
daily total 一日あたり感染者数合計 (コロナウイルスの統計について):
* The daily total of 769 is the lowest on a Saturday since Dec. 19 when the capital recorded 736.
■ the death toll, the number of people killed, the number of deaths
* The death toll exceeds 2,800.
* More than 2,800 have died.
death rate
→ case fatality rate (CFR)
depressurized room陰圧室
Designated infectious diseases指定感染症
Designated prefectural infectious disease surveillance center基幹地方感染症情報センター
* Older adults are at greater risk of requiring hospitalization or dying if they are diagnosed with COVID-19.
Diagnostic test診断検査:
* A test that checks to see if you are infected.
* Nearly 800 people have died of SARS and thousands been infected by it around the world.
digital contact tracingデジタル感染追跡
Director-General of the Health Services Bureau健康局長
disinfect 除菌、消毒する:
* Clean and disinfect commonly touched surfaces and any shared items between use.
* At least daily, clean and disinfect all surfaces that are frequently touched by multiple people, such as door handles, desks, light switches, faucets, toilets, workstations, keyboards, telephones, handrails, printer/copiers, and drinking fountains.
disinfection 除菌、消毒:
disposable surgical mask使い捨てマスク:
→ physical distancing
→ social distancing
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)デオキシリボ核酸
dosage〈規定)投与量; 接種量:
* The government’s vaccine development program, formerly called Operation Warp Speed, has asked Moderna to test if it could lower the dosage of its vaccine without eroding the vaccine’s protection.
政府のワクチン開発計画(以前はOperation Warp Speedと呼ばれていた)は、モデルナ社に対してワクチンの効果を損なうことなく一回当たりのワクチン接種量を減らせないかどうか試験するように要請した.
dose 投薬する(動詞):
→ second dose
→ single dose
→ two-dose regimen
〔薬の〕一服; (特に)〔水薬の〕服用量(の1回分) 〔of〕; 投与; ワクチンの接種、接種量(回分):
* Each dose of Pfizer’s contains 30 micrograms of vaccine.
* Visually inspect each dose of the Moderna COVID‑19 Vaccine in the dosing syringe prior to administration.
→ infectious dose
* those infected with a higher dose of SARS-CoV-2 had worse outcomes compared to those infected with smaller amounts of virus.
dosing volume接種量:
* verify the final dosing volume of 0.5 mL.
Drive through testingドライブスルー検査:
* Instead of visiting a doctor's office or other indoor health care facility, patients pull up in their cars to a specific outdoor site where diagnostic and/or antibody tests for COVID-19 are done. Health care providers stand outside and do testing through car windows.
droplet飛沫; 小滴:
* A tiny moist particle that is released when you cough or sneeze.
You may contract the coronavirus if you’re close to someone who is carrying it and your mouth, nose, or eyes come into contact with droplets they have released.
droplet infection/droplet transmission/ droplet spread飛沫感染:
* 微生物を含む飛沫が感染源となる人から発生し、空気中を短距離移動し、感受性宿主の結膜・鼻粘膜・口腔に到達する感染経路
droplet nuclei 飛沫核:
droplet transmission 飛沫感染:
* Droplet transmission is infection spread through exposure to virus-containing respiratory droplets (i.e., larger and smaller droplets and particles) exhaled by an infectious person.
E↑ インデックスへ
* Ebola, also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD), is a viral haemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches. Vomiting, diarrhoea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys.At this time, some people begin to bleed both.
エボラ,またはエボラウイルス症(EVD)とも呼ばれる、はヒト及びその他の霊長類が罹患するウイルス性出血熱である。通常はウイルス感染後2,3週間で熱、のどの痛み、筋肉痛、頭痛などの症状が始まる。続いて、嘔吐、下痢、発疹が起こり、肝臓・腎臓機能が低下を伴う. (WIKIPEDIA)
effective reproduction number (ERN)
→ basic reproduction number
■ 感染が拡がったことのない、もしくは全く免疫を持たない集団に感染が入り込んだ際の感染性を基本再生産数(R0)と呼ぶのに対し、その集団全員が必ずしも感受性ではない場合(感染が流行中である場合や、感染が拡がり、免疫を持つようになったひとが増えている段階やワクチン接種が拡がっている状況)での感染性の指標を実効再生産数と呼びます(日本疫学界websiteより)。
■ 一般条件下での医薬品の有効性.
→ effectiveness
* Johnson & Johnson’s 85% efficacy against severe disease was a bit lower than those reported by Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech.
EGF (Epidermal growth factor)上皮成長因子:
■ 53アミノ酸残基及び3つの分子内ジスルフィド結合から成る6045 Daのタンパク質(Wikipedia)
Elective surgeries待期的手術(緊急でない、選択的な手術) :
* Procedures that are considered non-urgent and non-essential. During periods of community transmission, CDC is recommending postponing elective procedures, surgeries, and non-urgent outpatient visits. (CDCウェブサイト)
emergency restrictions緊急自粛措置:
* But by easing emergency restrictions, those prefectures must face the risk of allowing a respiratory disease devoid of a cure to regain strength.
Emergency use authorization緊急使用許可:
■ 米食品医薬品局(FDA)が緊急時に未承認薬などの使用を許可したり、既承認薬の適応を拡大したりする制度.
enclosed space閉鎖空間:
encourage 奨励する、促進する:
■ 特定区域内集団の感染症の日常的な流行、あるいは感染性病原体の恒常的な存在.
entry receptor エントリーレセプタ
* 特定区域や特定集団において通常予測される以上の症例数の増加。
* An increase, often sudden, in the number of cases of a disease above what is normally expected in that population in that area.
epidemiological study疫学調査
* There is no way to ensure you have zero risk of infection, so it is important to understand the risks and know how to be as safe as possible if or when you do resume some activities, run errands, or attend events and gatherings.
Essential activitiesエセンシャルアクティビティ(生活を維持するために欠くことができない活動):
essential worker エセンシャルワーカー(必要不可欠な労働者)
* The World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned against handing out “immunity passports” to people who have recovered from the coronavirus, saying there is “no evidence” they are protected from catching the disease again.
WHOはコロナウイルスから回復した人々へ「immunity passport」(免疫パスポート)を発行することに対して、再度感染しないという「エビデンス」がないとして慎重な姿勢をとっている.
excess fatalities超過死亡者数
expert panel 専門家会議
* The death rate was 90 percent for those exposed.
exposure暴露, 接触:
* Having come into contact with a cause of, or possessing a characteristic that is a determinant of, a particular health problem. (CDC)
* exposure to sublethal stimuli( 致死量以下の刺激への暴露 )
* Even very brief exposure may produce the disease, and persons travelling the endemic areas may be infected.
external environment外部環境
external stress外的刺激、ストレス
F↑ インデックスへ
face maskマスク:
* Clean hands properly before putting the face mask on or taking it off.
false negative偽陰性
false positive偽陽性
fatality死, 死者(通常、複数形で):
* Traffic accidents cause many fatalities.
fatality rate 致死率:
致死率(Case fatality rate)
■ 致死率(%)=疾病発生または診断後ある期間内に死亡した人数/ある疾患を有する人数 ×100
* Common symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, dry cough, fatigue, loss of appetite, loss of smell, and body ache.
FFP1 mask (Filtering Facepieces 1 mask)FFP1マスク:
* The numbering system (FFP1, FPP2, FFP3) indicates the filtration efficiency of these devices. FFP1 masks have a limited filtering efficiency: they only filter out the biggest particles and are not the most suitable for protecting the wearer from the harmful microparticles that carry the virus.
(FFP1, 2, 3などの記号はマスクのろ過性能を示す。FFP1マスクのろ過性能は限定的で、大粒子をろ過するだけでありウイルスを運ぶ有害微小粒子からの保護には適さない.)
FFP2 mask (filtering facepiece respirator)FFP2マスク:
* FFP2 and FPP3 have a filtration efficiency for airborne particles (including those that contain the virus) of 92% for FPP2 and 98% for FFP3.
* In Germany, the government has since 15 December sent out vouchers for FFP2 masks to 34.1 million citizens aged over 60 or with a history of illness such as cancer, with the aim of supplying 15 masks to every person in that category before the end of January.
filter out遮断する、取り除く、通さない:
* When fitted properly, FFP2 masks promise to filter out at least 94% of particles but are also more expensive, usually retailing at between €2 and €5 per mask.
financial support財政支援:
* Questions also remain as to whether the government will provide additional financial support to struggling households, as well as businesses that have heeded requests to temporarily close or reduce operations.
fist bump フィスト・バンプ:
■ 握手やハイタッチと似た意味で用いられる拳と拳を突き合わせる仕草をするジェスチャー (Wikipedia)
flexible hours 時差出勤、フレックスタイム制
* If it is feasible for your business, promote teleworking across your organisation and allow workers to work flexible hours to minimise crowding the workplace.
* objects carrying infection: inanimate objects capable of carrying germs from an infected person to another person, for example, clothes or bedding.
G↑ インデックスへ
G-CSF (Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor)顆粒球コロニー形成刺激因子:
■ 骨髄中の顆粒球系(特に好中球)の分化・増殖促進作用や好中球機能亢進作用、好中球に対する抗アポトーシス作用などをあらわし、好中球減少症に有効な物質の一つとなる.) (日経メディカルウェブサイト)
gene amplification遺伝子増幅
gene conversion遺伝子変換
genetic sequencing (DNA sequencing、genome sequencing)DNAシークエンシング:
■ DNAを構成するヌクレオチドの結合順序(塩基配列)を決定すること
genetic code遺伝暗号
genetic complementation遺伝的相補性
genetic information遺伝情報
genetic manipulation遺伝子操作
genetic marker遺伝的標識、形質
genetic recombination遺伝的組み換え
■ 細胞内の全遺伝子を含む遺伝情報全体。ヒトの場合、約30億の塩基配列の組み合わせで構成される.
genomic analysis ゲノム解析:
* Genomic analysis is the identification, measurement or comparison of genomic features such as DNA sequence, structural variation, gene expression, or regulatory and functional element annotation at a genomic scale.
* Genomic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 shares about 80% genetic identity with SARS-CoV, around 50% with MERS-CoV, and around 90% with bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21 coronaviruses, suggesting bat-to-human zoonotic transmission of this new virus.
genotoxicity test遺伝毒性試験
germ 病原菌
get a better grasp of the situation 状況を把握する:
* Experts have been calling for the government to test more people to get a better grasp of the situation in the country。
get COVID-19新型コロナウイルスに感染する:
* Everyone, especially older adults and others at increased risk of severe illness, should take steps to protect themselves from getting COVID-19.
global mortality 世界的死亡率, 死者数
go to travel Go To トラベル:
* Japan’s response has already been criticized as being too slow and confusing. Under the government’s subsidized Go To Travel and Go To Eat campaigns, domestic travel and dining out had been encouraged to spur the economy, a policy that sent mixed messages and which may have accelerated the spread of the virus.
(日本の対応は、遅くかつ混乱をきたすものだと非難されている. 政府のGo to トラベルやGo To イートでは景気を刺激するために国内旅行や外食が奨励されたが、これは矛盾した政策であり、ウイルス感染を加速させた可能性がある.)
group injection 集団感染
H↑ インデックスへ
hand hygiene手洗い・消毒、手指衛生:
*Practicing hand hygiene is a simple yet effective way to prevent infections. [CDC]
手洗い・消毒は、感染防止のための簡単かつ有効な方法である. [CDC]
hand rub、hand sanitizer手指消毒剤:
* A hand rub is a gel or liquid containing antimicrobial agents that decrease the number of microorganisms present on hands.
* Instruct workers to clean their hands frequently, using soap and water for at least 20 seconds or with an alcohol-based hand sanitiser that contains at least 60-95% alcohol.
hand washing手洗い:
* handwashing with soap and water is one of the best steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.
have COVID-19COVID-19に感染している:
* If a worker is confirmed to have COVID-19, employers should inform fellow workers of their possible exposure to COVID-19 in the workplace but maintain confidentiality.
* If you start feeling sick and think you may have COVID-19, get in touch with your healthcare provider within 24 hours. If you don’t have a healthcare provider, contact your nearest community health center.
health care system医療; 医療制度:
* the Japanese health care system continues to teeter on the brink.
health care worker/ health professionals 医療従事者、医療関係者
Health Declaration Form健康状態申告書
hemagglutinne (HA)ヘマグルチニン:
■ インフルエンザウイルス表面にあるスパイクタンパク(糖タンパク質)のひとつ。
herd immunity集団免疫:
* Anywhere from 50% to 90% of the population would have to have antibodies to COVID-19 in order for herd immunity to kick in.
high-contact areas多くの人が触れる場所:
high riskハイリスク
* Advice for people at higher risk from COVID-19, including older people, people with health conditions and pregnant women.
→  stay home
home isolation/isolation at home/quarantine at home自宅隔離
hospital admission /hospitalization入院
hospital bed病床:
* There are now more patients with severe symptoms than the number of available hospital beds for their treatment in the prefecture.
hospitalization 入院;入院患者数:
* COVID-19 hospitalizations are expected to increase in the coming weeks.
■ 抗マラリア剤かつ全身性・皮膚エリテマトーデス治療薬 [WIKIPEDIA]
I↑ インデックスへ
ICU (Intensive care unit)集中治療室
IL (Interleukin)インターロイキン
■ リンパ球・マクロファージ・単球が産生放出する免疫システム制御機能を持つ低分子量化合物
immune response 免疫応答:
* An immune response is a reaction which occurs within an organism for the purpose of defending against foreign invaders.
* The J&J vaccine uses a different approach to instruct human cells to make the SARS-2 spike protein, which then triggers an immune response.
immune system 免疫系
* It takes time for vaccines to build up immunity, and the two authorized coronavirus vaccines both require two doses, given several weeks apart, to train the body's immune system.
immunity passport免疫パスポート:
* The World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned against handing out “immunity passports” to people who have recovered from the coronavirus, saying there is “no evidence” they are protected from catching the disease again.
* Vaccination immunizes people against smallpox.
Implementation manual for the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases Program感染症発生動向調査事業実施要綱
in vivo生体内
in vivo differentiation assay生体内分化試験
incubation period 潜伏期間;
* The time from when you're exposed to an infectious disease to when you get symptoms. The incubation period for COVID-19 is usually 4-5 days but may last as long as 14 days.
感染した時点から症状が現れるまでの期間。 COVID-19の潜伏期間は通常では4-5日だが、最長14日の場合もある

How long is the coronavirus incubation period?
indigenous bacterial flora常在細菌叢
* All the victims had been infected with a strain of salmonella that was resistant to antibiotics.
* Masks offer some protection to you and are also meant to protect those around you, in case you are unknowingly infected with the virus that causes COVID-19.(CDC)
* If you test negative, you probably were not infected at the time your sample was collected. The test result only means that you did not have COVID-19 at the time of testing. Continue to take steps to protect yourself.(CDC)
検査で陰性となった場合、検体採取時において感染していなかったを意味する。検査結果は、検査時点においてCOVID-19に感染していなかったことを意味するにすぎない. [CDC]
* On average it takes 5–6 days from when someone is infected with the virus for symptoms to show, however it can take up to 14 days.
infected cell 感染細胞:
* DNA was extracted from the infected cells by a modified Hirt's procedure.
infectious period 感染性期:
■  ヒトが感染性を有する期間
infected person 感染者:
* Droplets containing the virus, produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes, are the primary route of transmission
* COVID-19 is most likely transmitted when there is close contact (2 metres or less) with an infected person. It is likely that the risk increases the longer someone has close contact with an infected person.
(新型コロナウイルスは、感染者と濃厚接触(2m以内)する場合に感染することが多い. 感染者との濃厚接触時間が長いほど感染リスクが増加するようだ.)
infected people 感染者
→ infection route
* Some people with disabilities might be at a higher risk of infection or severe illness from COVID-19.
* The following symptoms may develop in the 14 days after exposure to someone who has COVID-19 infection: dry cough, sore throat, difficulty in breathing, tiredness, fever, loss of sense of smell and, or taste.
infections 感染者(数); 感染症
infection rate感染率
infection route感染経路:
* Infection routes are unknown for two of them, and they are believed to have been infected with the strain through community spread.
infectious dose(ウイルス)感染量、感染必要量:
* The infectious dose is the amount of virus needed to establish an infection.
cf: viral load (ウイルス負荷量)
inflammation 炎症
* Influenza, commonly known as ""the flu"", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
インフルエンザ、インフルエンザ・ウイルスが原因となって発症する感染症であり、通常はthe fluとして知られている.
* A procedure that puts a medicine, blood, or fluid directly into your veins through an IV or catheter over a period of time.
in-hospital infection; hospital infection院内感染:
* Over 40 percent of the coronavirus-linked deaths in Osaka involve hospital infections
innate immunity自然免疫:
■ 自然免疫は人間に元々備わっている仕組み。免疫細胞が自分と自分以外(非自己)を認識し、非自己である病原体を認識して攻撃することで病原菌を排除する.
inoculate接種する; 予防接種する:
* inoculate a person with a flu virus.
* inoculate a person against [for] smallpox
* Remote communications for the purposes of case investigation and contact tracing should be prioritized; in-person communication may be considered only after remote options have been exhausted.
interact with 交流する;人と接する; 対話する:
* In general, the more people you interact with, the more closely you interact with them, and the longer that interaction, the higher the risk of COVID-19 spread. So, think about:
• How many people will you interact with?
• Can you keep at least 6 feet of space between you and others?
• Will you be outdoors or indoors?
• What’s the length of time that you will be interacting with people?
一般的に、多くの人と密な空間で長時間対話するとそれだけ新型コロナウイルスの感染リスクが高まる. したがって、人と会う前には次の点に注意が必要だ:
・ 人数?
・ 距離(少なくと6フィートの距離を保つことができるか)?
・ 場所(戸外か室内)
・ 時間?)
■  アミノ酸配列が解明された時点で命名された多機能サイトカイン群.
isolate(v) 単離, (ウイルスを)分離する,(人を) 隔離する; (n) 分離株:
* separating sick people with a contagious disease from those who are not sick [CDC]
* isolation at home (自宅隔離)
■ 寄生虫感染症の特効薬の一つで、ノーベル医学生理学賞を受賞した大村智氏が開発した。
J↑ インデックスへ
Japan Medical Association 日本医師会:
K↑ インデックスへ
L↑ インデックスへ
latent period 潜伏感染期:
■ 感染時点から感染性を有するまでの期間。
■ 感染症拡大防止のため、外出や行動を制限する措置.
M↑ インデックスへ
maintenance medium維持培地、培養液
→ compulsory
* Germany weighs up mandatory FFP2 masks in shops and on transport
* In an attempt to slow down the spread of the novel coronavirus, an increasing number of countries have made wearing face masks mandatory in public spaces, with citizens facing a possible fine if caught without one.
mask マスク :
* WHO recommends against wearing masks in community settings because of lack of evidence.
* As the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outside China is accelerating, we urge policy makers to reconsider the role of masking.
MCP1 (Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1)単球走化性タンパク質-1:
■ 単球や血管内皮細胞などから分泌されるケモカイン
mediator メディエータ:
■ 転写調節因子の働きを仲介する因子
medical condition
■ health condition
* Pregnant women and people with medical conditions that make it harder for them to breathe are exempt.
medical worker医療従事者
monoclonal モノクローナル; 単クローン性の:
■ 単一細胞に由来する細胞である
mortality 死亡率:
* This disease has a high mortality.
m-RNA vaccine mRNAワクチン:
* Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines are a novel technology that stimulates the body’s own immune response.
multiorgan failure 多臓器不全
mutant 変異種;変異株:
* The best way to stop the spread of mutants and to prevent more new ones from emerging is to vaccinate as many people as quickly as possible
mutated strain変異株
mutation 変異;突然変異
N↑ インデックスへ
N95 respirator (face mask)N95 レスピレータ :
* Unlike a surgical or cloth mask, N95 respirators (sometimes called N95 masks) are designed to prevent the wearer from breathing in tiny particles. When fit properly, they filter out at least 95% of large and small particles.
National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID)感染症発生動向調査
National Institute of Infectious Diseases
nationwide tally 全国集計
negative-pressure rooms陰圧室
neuraminidase ノイラミニダーゼ:
■ ノイラミニダーゼは、新しく形成されたウイルス粒子またはホスト細胞の受容体からの、シアル酸残基末端の加水分解を触媒する[1]。この活性により、呼吸器官粘膜中のウイルス粒子の運動性、また感染細胞で新しく生成したウイルス粒子の溶出が促進される[wikipedia]
newly infected people 新規感染者:
* Of the newly infected people in Tokyo, 145 were in their 20s, 130 in their 30s and 117 in their 50s. Those 65 or older accounted for 168 cases.
東京での新規感染者のうち、145人が20歳代、130人が30歳代、117人が50歳代であった. 65歳以上の新規感染者は169人を占めた.
night curfew 夜間外出禁止令
nonessential outing不要不急の外出
novel coronavirus新型コロナウイルス:
* On 31 December 2019, WHO was informed of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause in Wuhan City, China. A novel coronavirus was identified as the cause by Chinese authorities on 7 January 2020 and was temporarily named “2019-nCoV”
* A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. The new virus was subsequently named the “COVID-19 virus
新型コロナウイルス(nCoV)は、ヒトではこれまでに特定されていない新種である. この新しいウイルスは、その後、COVID-19ウイルスと命名された.
nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) 核因子κB (サイトカイン産生に関連する転写因子)
number of infections感染者数
number of new infections 新規感染者数:
* Tokyo reported two new cases of the coronavirus on Saturday, the lowest daily figure in months on Saturday and taking the number of new infections per 100,000 people in the week through Saturday to 0.29, below the government-set threshold of 0.5 for lifting the state of emergency.
neutralizing antibody中和抗体:
■  ウイルスの感染力又は毒素の活性を中和できる抗体。
O↑ インデックスへ
observation period 観察期間
Omicron subvariant オミクロン株亜種:
* Omicron subvariant BA.5 is on the rise in Japan
オミクロン株亜種 BA.5 が日本で増加
* On 11th March 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak as pandemic.
* The European Commission is working together with the WHO and Member State public health authorities to contain the COVID-19 outbreak.
* Public health centers are overwhelmed with coronavirus inquiries.
Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine オックスフォード・アストレゼネカワクチン:
* The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine requires two doses, given four weeks apart, to prime the immune system to fight off the coronavirus.
P↑ インデックスへ
pandemicパンデミック; 感染爆発; 流行
■ 感染症などの全国的または世界的に大流行
Pandemic Influenza (Novel Influenza) 新型インフルエンザ
* If you have no symptoms of the COVID-19 virus, can you pass the disease to others?
pathogen 病原体:
* Any virus, microorganism, or other substance causing disease
Pathogen Testing Guidelines病原体検査要領 
pathway 経路(神経インパルスが伝導される神経細胞の;代謝過程の)
patient with mild symptoms軽症者
patient with no symptoms 無症状患者
patient with severe illness 重症者
PCR (polymerase chain reaction) ポリメラーゼ連鎖反応:
■  PCRとは、試薬や酵素といった薬品を使って少量のDNAを大量に増やす手法。
PCR testPCR検査 (polymerase chain reaction) test 
* This is a diagnostic test that determines if you are infected by analyzing a sample to see if it contains genetic material from the virus.
Personal protective equipment (PPE)個人用防護具:
■ ガウン、手袋、マスク、キャップ、 エプロン、シューカバー、フェイスシールド、ゴーグルなど.
Pfizer vaccine ファイザーワクチン
physical distancing 物理的ディスタンシング:
* Physical distancing is the practice of staying at least 6 feet away from others to avoid catching a disease such as COVID-19.
pneumonia 肺炎
* His reaction to the tuberculin test proved positive.
percent positive rate /percent positive / percentage of positive tests \ positive rate陽性率
positive case陽性者
prefectures under specific cautions特定警戒都道府県(緊急事態宣言対象地域)
* If you’re pre-symptomatic, you have contracted the virus and may soon feel symptoms, but at the moment, you don't have any. It may be possible to spread COVID-19 to others during this phase.
primary antibody一次抗体:
■ 目的の分子に結合する抗体。
■ 病気の経過の予測;病気からの生存と回復の予測
public transportation/public transport 公共輸送機関:
* Austrians on Monday swapped their cloth face coverings for medical-grade FFP2 masks, now mandatory for those over 14 on public transport, shops and businesses, pharmacies as well as hospitals or medical practices
PRR (Pattern recognition receptor)パターン認識受容体:
■ 自然免疫において、マクロファージや樹状細胞などの自然免疫に関する細胞に存在する受容体であり、目的としては病原体などの異物を認識する機能をもつ受容体のこと(wikipedia)
public health authority公共保健機関
Public Health Center保健所
Public Health Institute地方衛生研究所
public health measure 公衆衛生対策
public transportation/pubric transport 公共輸送機関:
* Just as before, people are advised to wear masks, stay 2 meters apart, frequently wash their hands with soap, change clothes upon returning home, work remotely and avoid riding public transportation during rush hour.
Q↑ インデックスへ
Quarantine検疫; 隔離:
■ 伝染病地からの旅行者、貨物に対する検疫、隔離
* The practice of staying home and away from others for 14 days after you've been exposed to COVID-19 to see if you get symptoms and avoid spreading the virus if you are in fact carrying it.
Quarantine Act検疫法
quarantine period 検疫期間、隔離期間:
* This means that if a person remains well 14 days after contact with someone with confirmed coronavirus, they have not been infected. Some authorities have assessed the maximum incubation period to be less than 14 days and have accordingly set shorter minimum quarantine periods, such as ten days.
コロナウイルス感染者との接触後14日経過して健康に問題がなければ、感染していないと思われる. ウイルスの最大潜伏期間は14日以下と考えられており、最短検疫期間を10日間とする保健当局もある.
R↑ インデックスへ
■ ある物質が特異的な相互作用をするとき結合する分子レベルでの標的部位
receptor-binding domain (RBD)受容体結合ドメイン
receptor gradient 受容体勾配:
■ 赤血球細胞上の受容体との反応、および破壊力に関して並べたウイルスの系列
* The World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned against handing out “immunity passports” to people who have recovered from the coronavirus, saying there is “no evidence” they are protected from catching the disease again.
regimen 治療(投薬)計画;
■ 患者の健康維持向上を目的として生活様式や、療法、投薬を計画的に規制すること
* Remdesivir: An antiviral drug made to treat Ebola (but never approved for that purpose), remdesivir is the first treatment to be granted full approval by the FDA to treat COVID-19. Evidence shows that those treated with remdesivir recovered in about 11 days compared to 15 days for those treated with a placebo.
remote working リモートワーク:
* Remote working has become much more prevalent in Japan due to the coronavirus pandemic, and ways of working not tied to a specific location are gaining ground.
remote meetingリモート会議
reproductive rate《疫学》基本再生産数[繁殖率]
■ 1人の感染者が、感染力を失うまでに何人の未感染者に感染させるかの指標。
略語R0は、R noughtまたはR zeroと発音される
respiratory disease 呼吸器疾患
respiratory infection呼吸器感染症
response 対応、対策
restrictive measure制限的措置:
* France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK applied restrictive measures to contain the pandemic.
resurgence復活; 再拡大:
* The resurgence of the pandemic in India was extremely severe in the first half of 2021.
reverse mutation 復帰突然変異; 逆突然変異
riskリスク, 危険, 恐れ:
* The risk for severe illness with COVID-19 increases with age, with older adults at highest risk
* Persons who have conditions that put them at higher risk of serious illness
RNA (ribonucleic acid)リボ核酸
rollout配布; 供給:
* Japan’s vaccine rollout chief has said that growing nationalism over supplies of COVID-19 shots could lead to retaliation and disruptions to global supplies.
rolling seven-day average7日間移動平均:
■ 1ヶ月の日次データの場合、移動平均値の区間を7日とすると、日次データの前後7日間の合計を7で割った数値が移動平均値となる。
route of infection 感染経路
S↑ インデックスへ
safe distance安全な距離:
* The use of surgical or 'hygienic' face masks should be considered when working in closed spaces with other persons, or when it is not possible to maintain a safe distance from other people.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)重症急性呼吸器症候群:
■ SARSコロナウイルスによる全身性感染症。感染経路は、飛沫および接触(糞口)感染が主体となり、空気感染の可能性も否定できない。潜伏期は2~7日間、最長10日間。発熱、悪寒震え、筋肉痛など、インフルエンザ様症状で発症し、発病第2週には非定型肺炎へ進行し、乾性咳嗽、呼吸困難や水様性下痢を発症する。約20%の症例で呼吸不全となり、集中治療が必要になる。(厚労省)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
second dose 2回目の接種:
* The 95% efficacy number for the Covid-19 vaccines also assumes some built-in wait time. Moderna measured the efficacy of its vaccine starting 14 days after the second dose, while Pfizer measured it starting seven days after the second dose.
second wave of infections 感染第2波:
* A second wave of coronavirus infections is sure to hit Japan even though the country has managed to prevent an explosive spread of COVID-19.
self-isolate 自主隔離する:
* Those who have had close contact will be asked to self-isolate at home for up to 14 days from the last time they had contact with the confirmed case.
■ 核酸と塩基やポリペプチドのアミノ酸配列を決定する操作
serology test: 血清検査 (抗体検査に同じ):
* Also called an antibody test, this checks to see if you have antibodies in your bloodstream that indicate you had been infected with the virus in the past.
severely ill ; severe illness重症化 :
* become severely ill (重症化する)
Some people are more likely than others to become severely ill
・ Risk for severe illness with COVID-19 increases with age, with older adults at highest risk.
severely ill patients重症者、重症患者
shot 接種;注射:
* Both the Moderna and the Pfizer vaccines require two shots: a priming dose, followed by a booster shot. The interval between Moderna doses is 28 days; for the Pfizer vaccine, it’s 21 days.
side effects副作用 :
* With the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, side effects are more common after the second dose. Younger adults, who have more robust immune systems, reported more side effects than older adults.
side reactions副反応 (side effectsと同じ意味でつかわれる場合が多い):
■ ワクチンを接種したことが原因で起きた健康上の問題のことを「副反応」という。
signal transduction シグナル伝達、情報伝達(細胞がホルモンやサイトカインなどの外来シグナルを受けて作用する過程)
sneeze くしゃみ:
* cough and sneeze etiquette (せきくしゃみエチケット)
signaling; signal transductionシグナル伝達; 信号伝達:
■ 細胞がホルモンやサイトカインなどの外来シグナルを受けて作用する過程
single dose単回接種(1回の接種):
* A single dose of a coronavirus vaccine can reduce household transmission of the virus by up to half, a study shows.
social distancingソーシャルディスタンシング (疾病の感染拡大を防ぐため、意図的に人と人との物理的距離を保つこと):
* Social distancing, or keeping a distance of 2 metres from other people, is a key safety measure to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission.
spike protein スパイクタンパク質:
■ コロナウイルスは、スパイクタンパク質を利用して、宿主ACE2受容体を認識し、膜融合および宿主細胞へ侵入する
* The SARS-CoV-2 virus is studded with proteins that it uses to enter human cells. These so-called spike proteins make a tempting target for potential vaccines and treatments.
spread (動詞)広がる;蔓延する; 感染・伝染する; 拡大する
* stagger office hours (会社の出勤時間をずらす, 時差出勤にする)
* Staggering work shifts is another way you can make your workplace safe for your staff and customers.
state of emergency (declaration)緊急事態(宣言):
* The state of emergency is slated to expire on May 31.
statistical analysis統計的処理
strain (v)逼迫させる; 圧迫する:
* The COVID-19 pandemic has strained health systems around the world in unprecedented ways.
strain (n)逼迫 :
* Experts are warning the current wave of coronavirus infections is putting increasing strain on the medical system in the capital.
strain (n)(菌)株;系統:
* Throughout the past several years of COVID-19, the virus has mutated into different strains, including delta and omicron.
* The health care system has been stressed by the number of people that require hospitalization, as well as intensive care.
How long any respiratory virus survives will depend on a number of factors, for example:
• what surface the virus is on
• whether it is exposed to sunlight
• differences in temperature and humidity
• exposure to cleaning products.
・ ウイルスが存在する面
・ 太陽光に暴露されているかどうか
・ 温度と湿度差
・ 洗浄剤への暴露
suspected 感染が疑われる:
* Staying home when you have suspected or confirmed COVID-19.
Swab test: 拭取り検査:
* A type of diagnostic test that involves taking sample from the back of your nasal cavity so it can be analyzed in a lab to see if it contains the virus.
* The following symptoms may develop in the 14 days after exposure to someone who has COVID-19 infection: dry cough, sore throat, difficulty in breathing, tiredness, fever, and loss of sense of smell.
T↑ インデックスへ
targeted therapy 標的治療:
* Targeted therapy is the foundation of precision medicine. It is a type of cancer treatment that targets proteins that control how cancer cells grow, divide, and spread.
■ 細胞内で合成された蛋白質が特定のシグナルに依存して小胞体や核などに移行して局在する過程
test positive検査で陽性と出る[陽性反応を示す・陽性反応が出る:
* She said she tested positive for COVID-19.
testing guidelines検査ガイドライン(指針)
testing kit; test kit検査キット
Tocilizumab ( Actemra ):トシリズマブ(アクテムラ)
■ ヒト化抗ヒトIL-6受容体モノクローナル抗体で、インターロイキン-6 の作用を抑制し免疫抑制効果を示す分子標的治療薬である [WIKIPEDIA]
* Tocilizumab ( Actemra ): an immunosuppressant used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and is being used in trials to treat COVID-19.
trained immunity訓練免疫
transcription 転写(遺伝情報の)
transcription factor 転写因子
transdermic 経皮の
transducer cell トランスデューサ細胞:
■ 機械的、熱、光、化学的刺激などに反応し、電気的インパルスを生む細胞
transmission感染; 伝播; 伝染:
* Transmission of the disease to humans remains a major concern.
* Infections with respiratory viruses are principally transmitted through three modes: contact, droplet, and airborne.
two-shot regimen/ two-dose regimen 2回接種方式:
* Both the Moderna and the Pfizer vaccines require two shots: a priming dose, followed by a booster shot. The interval between Moderna doses is 28 days; for the Pfizer vaccine, it’s 21 days.
U↑ インデックスへ
ultraviolet lamp紫外線ランプ
underlying 基礎をなす;潜在的な:
* Those most at risk for severe influenza infection are children, pregnant women, elderly, those with underlying chronic medical conditions and those who are immunosuppressed. For COVID-19, our current understanding is that older age and underlying conditions increase the risk for severe infection.
underlying condition 基礎疾患:
* persons who may be at particular risk (those aged over 60, or who have an underlying condition or chronic disease, or who are pregnant)
unwell 体調不良:
* The risk of becoming seriously unwell from COVID-19 and other respiratory infections is very low for most children and young people.
upper respiratory tract 上気道:
■ 呼吸器系のうち、鼻、鼻腔、鼻腔空の部分
* The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are upper respiratory tract infections: typically, cough, sore throat or a runny nose.
V↑ インデックスへ
* vaccinate a person against COVID-19 (人にCOVID-19の予防注射をする)
* All residents aged 60 or older should be vaccinated against COVID-19.
* administer a vaccination (to sb) ((人に)予防接種を行なう)
* get a vaccination for COVID-19 (新型コロナウイルスの予防接種を受ける)
* Have you had a vaccination against (for) COVID-19?
* receive [undergo] (a) vaccination (予防接種を受ける).
→Pfizer vaccine
* Vaccine: A kind of medicine that prevents disease by training your body’s immune system to fight a germ that it’s never come into contact with before.
* The COVID-19 vaccine will bring an end to the pandemic, but this will take time. Until then, the best only way to prevent infection is to avoid being exposed to the virus.
vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine)Pfizer/BioNTech製ワクチン

variant変異体; 変異株
Vero cell ベロ細胞:
■ アフリカミドリザル腎由来樹立細胞株;ウイルス分離に使用する
viral evolution ウイルス進化
viral infection ウイルス性感染:
* The emergence of the viral infection is another reminder of the ease with which microbes can cross the globe and become established.
Viral load:ウイルス負荷量:
■ 血液中のHIVなどのウイルス濃度;血漿1ml当たりのウイルスRNAのコピー数で表す「研究社:医学英和辞典」
Viral sheddingウイルス排出:
■ ウイルス/ベクターが患者の分泌物や排泄物を介して拡散すること.
* The release of virus from an infected person into the environment, where it can infect others. In the case of COVID-19, most viral shedding occurs through the respiratory tract (often via a cough or sneeze), but the virus may also be shed though the gastrointestinal tract and show up in the stool.
* A tiny infectious organism made up of genetic material (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a protein coat. Viruses can't multiply on their own; they reproduce by invading living cells and taking control of them.
タンパク質に包まれた遺伝物質からなる小さい感染性の微生物.自身では増殖できない. 生体細胞に侵入しそれを乗っ取ることで繁殖する
virus-linked death ウイルス関連死
W↑ インデックスへ
wash 洗う:
* Remind employees to wash their hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
waste bin ごみ入れ
* seventh wave (第7波)
weigh up 検討する
WHO (World Health Organization)世界保健機関
within household家庭内:
* spreading within households (家庭内(感染)拡大)
work from home 在宅勤務, テレワークする、リモートで勤務する:
* Instruct workers, contractors and customers that anyone with even a mild cough or low-grade fever (37.3 C or more) needs to stay at home.
work remotely テレワーク、在宅勤務する:
* Just as before, people are advised to wear masks, stay 2 meters apart, frequently wash their hands with soap, change clothes upon returning home, work remotely and avoid riding public transportation during rush hour.
wuhan 武漢:
* On 31 December 2019, WHO was informed of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause in Wuhan City, China. A novel coronavirus was identified as the cause by Chinese authorities on 7 January 2020 and was temporarily named “2019-nCoV”.
X↑ インデックスへ
Y↑ インデックスへ
Z↑ インデックスへ

■ 無断転載禁止 ■



営業日:月〜金曜日(土日祝休業) 営業時間:9:00〜18:30